Advantages and disadvantages of consolidating school districts within a state
But the essential principle is the same: we learn things best when we attend to how they relate to other things.
The storage stage is governed by the time-dependency principle, which also has its roots in Ebbinghaus -- not to mention your grandmother: memory gets worse over time. Memories might fade, the way a photograph does; or they might be kicked out by newly arriving memories, as when a filing cabinet gets filled.
A recent study by Connor Diemand-Yauman and his colleagues at Princeton (2010) showed that presenting text in an unfamiliar font,, such as , which is relatively hard to read, led to better memory for text contents compared to a more familiar font, such as Arial (this website is mostly formatted in Verdana).
The more effort you expend, the better you'll remember -- provided that it's not just rote rehearsal.
That's 40 hours per week, 50 weeks a year, for 5 years; or 3 hours a week, 7 days a week, for 10 years; and it's the difference between Yo-Yo Ma and the rest of us.
By that standard, most students probably need to study harder.
We begin by distinguishing between three stages of memory processing -- encoding, the process by which a new trace is laid down in memory; storage, or what happens to the encoded memory trace over the retention interval; and retrieval, or gaining access to stored knowledge so that you can use it to solve problems or whatever.That knowledge may or may not translate into behavior, but by virtue of learning it becomes available for use, stored in memory.Now, psychologists distinguish among a number of different kinds of memory, including "short term" or "working" memory and "long-term" memory.Cognitive psychologists commonly distinguish among various types of knowledge stored in long-term memory.
There is, first, a distinction between declarative and procedural knowledge.Ebbinghaus' original theory of memory, based on British associationism, was that memory was fixed by rehearsal -- by simply repeating the item to be remembered, over and over again.